Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. , He set out for England from Scheveningen, arrived in Dover on 25 May 1660 and reached London on 29 May, his 30th birthday. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. Carlos naceu no palacio de St. James, o 29 de maio de 1630, sendo o segundo fillo home —pero primoxénito de facto, pois o fillo maior morreu ao nacer en 1629— dos nove fillos de Carlos I de Inglaterra e de Henriqueta María de Francia. Era este un acordo entre Inglaterra e Escocia que impedía remodelar a Igrexa de Escocia a imaxe da Anglicana, debendo manterse no Presbiterianismo —forma de goberno eclesiástico preferida pola maioría dos escoceses— a diferenza da Igrexa de Inglaterra que mantivo a súa xerarquía episcopal. Agradecido pola axuda prestada para recuperar o trono, Carlos recompensou a oito nobres (coñecidos como os Lores Propietarios) con territorios norteamericanos na denominada Carolina en honra do seu pai (1663). Carlos partiu cara a Inglaterra, desembarcando en Dover o 23 de maio de 1660. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) [c] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.He was King of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. Como fixera tantas veces durante o seu reinado, Carlos II inclinouse ante os desexos dos seus adversarios, enviando a Lord Danby á Torre de Londres, onde permaneceu cinco anos. En 1646, o seu pai, temendo pola súa seguridade, ordenoulle marcharse a Francia e reunirse coa súa nai, que se atopaba alí no exilio. Empobrecido, Carlos non logrou reunir suficientes apoios como para supor un desafío serio ao Lord Protector.  Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. Other kings had inspired more respect, but perhaps only Henry VIII had endeared himself to the popular imagination as much as this one. O aniversario da Restauración de Carlos, o 29 de maio, celebrouse tradicionalmente no Reino Unido co nome de Día da Mazá do Carballo, en recordo do Carballo Real no que se di que se ocultou Carlos para escapar das tropas de Oliver Cromwell. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. In retrospect, the use of the judicial system by Charles (and later his brother and heir James) as a tool against opposition, helped establish the idea of separation of powers between the judiciary and the Crown in Whig thought. O Parlamento da Convención foi disolto en decembro de 1660. , In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. In: Harris, T., & Taylor, S. Luís viuse obrigado a facer a paz coa Tripla Alianza, pero mantivo os seus plans bélicos. Lord Danby, con todo, era anticatólico e animou a Oates a que fixese pública a súa acusación. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic. Nació en la Casa de Stuart como el segundo hijo del rey James VI de Escocia, pero después de que su padre heredara el trono inglés en 1603 (como James I), se mudó a Inglaterra, donde pasó gran parte del resto de su vida. PA2/24, f.97r-97v. O Parlamento Cabaleiro —aínda que contrario a conceder tolerancia relixiosa aos católicos— opúxose á Declaración de Indulxencia baseándose en principios constitucionais —sostendo a incompetencia real para suspender leis de forma arbitraria— máis que políticos. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. A cambio, Carlos acordaba proporcionar a Luís tropas e converterse ao Catolicismo "axiña que como o permitise o benestar dos seus dominios". Durante o resto do seu reinado, Carlos gobernou como monarca absoluto, sen parlamento. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death in 1685.  By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money. A fin de salvar a Lord Danby do xuízo parlamentario na Cámara dos Lores, Carlos decidiu disolver o Parlamento en xaneiro de 1679. During Charles's reign all legal documents stating a, From the death of his father to his defeat at the, All dates in this article unless otherwise noted are given in the. And never did a wise one", To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's".  However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. Morreu o mércores 6 de febreiro de 1685, no palacio de Whitehall, aos 54 anos de idade, sendo sepultado na abadía de Westminster. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). En 1672 Carlos asinou a Declaración de Indulxencia, na que manifestaba a súa intención de suspender todas as leis que penalizaban aos católicos e a outros disidentes relixiosos. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. (2015).  Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.. En 1668, Inglaterra aliouse con Suecia e coa súa anterior inimiga, Holanda, a fin de oporse a Luís XIV na Guerra de Devolución. , Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s.  The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance; the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. , The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. Os que estaban á cabeza fuxiron antes de que se filtrasen noticias sobre a conspiración. Tras a morte de Oliver Cromwell en 1658, as oportunidades de Carlos para recuperar a Coroa pareceron minguar. Carlos II de España, llamado el «Hechizado» (Madrid, 6 de noviembre de 1661-ibídem, 1 de noviembre de 1700), fue rey de España entre 1665 y 1700. Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria of France. When the House of Lords attempted to impose the punishment of exile—which the Commons thought too mild—the impeachment became stalled between the two Houses. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. Si bien al comienzo del gobierno hubo una buena relación con el parlamento, pero la sucesión del rey se volvió un problema ya que ene se momento reinaban ciertos sentimientos “anticatólicos” en todo el reino, por lo que se oponían a que el único sucesor factible de Carlos II, era su hermano Duque de York Jacobo, ya que su esposa no le había dado ningún hijo y lo único que tenía era 14 hijos naturales. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Primeiro Conde de Shaftesbury (previamente Barón Ashley e membro de "a Cábala", que se disolveu en 1672) propuxo unha Lei de Exclusión, que pretendía apartar ao duque de York da liña sucesoria. , After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. Charles reluctantly promised that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorised Presbyterian church governance across Britain. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor..  During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty. With many of the Scots (including Lord Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, after which Charles eluded capture by hiding in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e … En 1670 Carlos, buscando resolver os seus problemas financeiros, acordou o Tratado de Dover, polo cal Luís XIV comprometíase a pagarlle 200.000 £ anuais. Deste xeito o seu fillo, o Príncipe Guillerme de Gales, actualmente segundo na liña sucesoria ao trono británico, será moi probablemente o primeiro monarca británico que descenda de Carlos II, e o primeiro que descenda de Carlos I desde a morte da raíña Ana I de Inglaterra en 1714. Non-academic authors have concentrated mainly on his social and cultural world, emphasising his charm, affability, worldliness, tolerance, turning him into one of the most popular of all English monarchs in novels, plays and films.. Desafiando a vontade do rei, o Parlamento decretou que a disolución da asemblea non interrompía unha moción de censura. O seu abandono do Anglicanismo, aínda que reportoulle apoios en Escocia, fíxolle impopular en Inglaterra. Sir Wren construíu igualmente o Hospital Real de Chelsea, que Carlos fundou como fogar para soldados retirados en 1681, e no que se acha desde 1692 unha grande estatua de Carlos II vestido ao xeito da Roma clásica. Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. , Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". A maior parte do tempo, a cantidade dispoñible nas arcas públicas foi moito menor. The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken male line.  In the end nine of the regicides were executed: they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and there was a general election for the first time in almost 20 years. Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. Todo o contido está dispoñible baixo a licenza, Última edición o 7 de xuño de 2020 ás 14:48, Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). Puritanism lost its momentum. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. 2.) Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters. Fíxose soado polos seus numerosos fillos ilexítimos, dos que recoñeceu a catorce. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who, at over 6 ft (1.8 m), was unusually tall. Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, Charles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. The public blamed Catholic conspirators for the fire, and one Frenchman, Robert Hubert, was hanged on the basis of a false confession even though he had no hand in starting the fire. (Eds.). Carlos I (19 de noviembre de 1600 - 30 de enero de 1649) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda desde el 27 de marzo de 1625 hasta su ejecución en 1649. Un grande incendio, con todo, destruíu gran parte de Newmarket e ocasionou que se cancelasen as carreiras, de modo que o atentado non se puido levar a cabo. O poder pasou a mans dun grupo de cinco políticos coñecidos como "a Cábala" ou camarilla, polas iniciais dos títulos dos seus membros: Thomas Clifford, Primeiro Barón de Clifford; Henry Bennet, Primeiro Conde de Arlington; George Viliers, Segundo Duque de Buckingham; Anthony Ashley Cooper, Primeiro Barón de Ashley (coñecido despois como Conde de Shaftesbury) e John Maitland, Primeiro Duque de Lauderdale. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations. Algunhas dos seus amantes e dos seus fillos naturais recibiron ducados e condados. La cuestión de quién debería ser su sucesor dio lugar a la guerra de O 5 de febreiro de 1649, Carlos II foi proclamado Rei dos Escoceses en Edimburgo, baixo a promesa de que convalidaría a Solemne Liga e Pacto. Resultou elixida unha Cámara dos Comúns con claro predominio da facción realista. Dado que o Parlamento Cabaleiro era abrumadoramente realista, Carlos non viu razón para disolvelo nin convocar novas eleccións xerais durante dezasete anos. Algúns dos rexicidas foron executados en 1660; a outros sentencioúselles a cadea perpetua. O novo Parlamento, constituído en marzo do mesmo ano, resultou ser francamente hostil ao rei. O mesmo ano, Carlos apoiou abertamente á católica Francia e iniciou a Terceira Guerra Anglo-holandesa. , Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. Con todo, esta asignación resultou de pouca utilidade durante a maior parte do seu reinado. Whig Thought and the Revolution of 1688–91. Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. , Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses, including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. He was succeeded by his brother James. Aínda que eran moitos os países que buscaran facerlle a guerra á católica Francia, Carlos II negociara en segredo con Luís XIV, tratando de alcanzar un acordo mediante o cal Inglaterra permanecería neutral a cambio de diñeiro. Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened. , The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million, generated largely from customs and excise duties. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. , Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. Desgraciadamente para el, a Cámara dos Comúns resistiuse a consideralo implicado contra a súa vontade no escándalo, crendo en cambio que fora el o autor daquela política. https://gl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carlos_II_de_Inglaterra&oldid=5481644, licenza Creative Commons recoñecemento compartir igual 3.0, Charles Lennox, 1.° Duque de Richmond, George FitzRoy, 1.º Duque de Northumberland, James Scott, Duque de Monmouth, Charles FitzRoy, 2° Duque de Cleveland, Henry FitzRoy, 1.° Duque de Grafton, Charlotte Lee, Condessa de Lichfield, Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, Mary Tudor, Barbara FitzRoy, Charlotte Jemima FitzRoy, Catherine FitzCharles, James de la Cloche, Mary Stuart, Anne Lennard, Condessa de Sussex, Cecelia FitzRoy, unnamed child1 Stuart, stillborn child Stuart, stillborn child3 Stuart e James Beauclerk, Lord Beauclerk. Aínda que previamente fora favorable á Coroa, durante a década de 1670 o Parlamento Cabaleiro distanciouse dela polas guerras emprendidas polo rei e pola súa política relixiosa. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Francia e as Provincias Unidas (a actual Holanda ou Países Baixos) aliáronse co goberno de Cromwell, forzando a Carlos a recorrer a España en demanda de axuda. O Acta de Conventículos e a de as Cinco Millas permaneceron en vigor durante o resto do reinado de Carlos. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. 1658? Diana's son, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, second in line to the British throne, is likely to be the first British monarch descended from Charles II. Temendo que a Lei de Exclusión fose aprobada, Carlos disolveu o parlamento en decembro de 1679.  Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. Carlos II foi un mecenas das artes e as ciencias. Coñecido como o Alegre Monarca, Carlos II favoreceu as artes e foi menos restritivo que os seus predecesores. An Act for the more effectuall preserving the Kings Person and Government by disableing Papists from sitting in either House of Parlyament", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_II_of_England&oldid=991328395, British expatriates in the Dutch Republic, Converts to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Jane Roberts – the daughter of a clergyman, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 13:56.
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